Wednesday, 26 September 2012

Indonesian Firm Seeks to Build Nuclear Medicine Factory in US

not sure what method this will be based on? Indonesian Firm Seeks to Build Nuclear Medicine Factory in US:

Canada, UAE sign cooperation accord

Canada, UAE sign cooperation accord:

Mixed fortunes for Canadian reactors

Too bad it seems a similar faith for Bruce unit 1 is not happening for Gentilly 2, even more sad that it is not due to technical issues: "Quebec Hydro's Gentilly 2 had been earmarked for a major life-extending refurbishment, and in 2011 the CNSC approved a five-year licence extension for the 635 MWe Candu which would have lasted until the planned completion of the refurbishment by 2016."

Bruce Power’s Unit 1 reactor adds power to the grid for the first time in 15 years

remarkable! did you know Bruce Power’s Unit 1 reactor is now synchronized to Ontario’s electricity grid, adding power to the grid for the first time in 15 years, congratulations to all involved, a milestone indeed!:

Thursday, 20 September 2012

In defence of the messenger at the expense of the truth?

From CNSC:
"On the heels of the release of the documentary, Gentilly or Not To Be, David Suzuki wrote an impassioned plea in support of Dr. Notebaert for his efforts to reveal “the truth” of the impact on Gentilly-2 nuclear power plant (NPP) on the health of residents in the community.
Mr. Suzuki defends Dr. Notebaert as a member of his "cercle scientifique”, a group whose mandate it is to reinforce the role of science in public debate on the environment. That’s a worthy mission and I wholeheartedly agree that we must make decisions based on science – but it must be good science.
Dr. Notebaert’s arguments are not criticized on the basis of statistical significance or lack thereof. Rather, the criticism is based on the fact that Dr. Notebaert chooses to use only a handful of studies—most discredited internationally for faults in methodology—as “proof of harm.” He conveniently ignores the numerous other epidemiological studies and hundreds of well-controlled experimental studies that do not support his preferred conclusions.
A weight-of-evidence approach—based on recognized, well-established criteria—is the foundation of good science when it comes to the investigation of effects of all environmental contaminants, not just radiation. Scientists using this rigorous scientific approach have contributed to public debate and public policy on all major environmental issues over the past several decades. The public has a right to expect the same rigour when it comes to radiation-related health effects.
Two further clarifications:
  • The CNSC does not take a position on the commercial activities of Hydro-Québec and the energy policies of the province of Quebec. Our sole mandate is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect the health and safety of people and the environment.
  • The CNSC does regulate using the precautionary principle, using science to set dose and release limits to protect people and the environment. Our stringent regulation of radioactive emissions from nuclear facilities results in concentrations of tritium in drinking water around Gentilly-2 actually lower than the California criterion of 15 Bq/l.
Let me reassure your readers that the staff of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) are actively engaged in scientific studies of the health effects and environmental behaviour of radiation, including tritium. I invite your readers to visit our web site ( to read our peer-reviewed scientific publications, public information documents and fact sheets.
Patsy Thompson, Ph.D.
Director General
Directorate of Environmental and Radiation Protection and Assessment
Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission"

Wednesday, 19 September 2012

Myths & Facts About Radiation

Another good resource separating facts from myths on radiation:

Australia leads the way with nuclear medicine initiative

Australia leads the way with nuclear medicine initiative:

.... it is too bad that Canada is losing its leadership in this field... no replacement for NRU means that it will also lose its leadership in nuclear R&D and neutron scattering...

Tuesday, 18 September 2012

Gentilly or Not To Be: Let’s Set the Record Straight

From CNSC: "The recently released documentary Gentilly or Not To Be may, regrettably, raise unfounded concerns about the safety record of the Gentilly-2 nuclear power plant, and the nuclear industry in general. Let's set the record straight!" "The recently released documentary Gentilly or Not To Be may, regrettably, raise unfounded concerns about the safety record of Gentilly-2 nuclear power plant, and the nuclear industry in general.
The film spreads many incorrect facts and interpretations that have little to do with reality. It would appear as though the producers of the film preferred to bury their own heads in the sand, rather than listening to competent public health authorities.
To be clear, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) does not take a position on the commercial activities of Hydro-Québec and the energy policies of the province of Quebec.
However, as Canada’s sole, independent nuclear regulator, the CNSC must set the record straight about some of the falsehoods being disseminated by the movie and its producers.
Here are some examples of falsehoods presented:
Falsehood #1: There is an abnormal rate of childhood cancers near Gentilly-2.
Fact: The Regional Public Health Directorate for La Mauricie and Centre-du-Québec confirms cancer rates around Gentilly-2 are normal. The fluctuations recorded by the documentary filmmakers for the years 2000–04 are normal, temporary, and found in a relatively remote area away from the plant. In fact, such fluctuations are regularly observed in the population, and should not be interpreted blindly and recklessly.
Falsehood #2: Women of childbearing age should not live near nuclear power plants, because of the dangers related to radioactive releases.
Fact: The minimal releases from nuclear power plants do not pose a danger to human health, including fetuses and young children. This has been demonstrated by many Canadian and international studies.
Falsehood #3: Living beside a nuclear facility increases the likelihood of birth defects and stillbirths, as proven by cases reported near Gentilly-2.
Fact: There is no evidence that exposure to radiation from nuclear facilities increases the risk of birth defect and stillbirths. Detailed health studies on survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki nuclear bombings and people living near Chernobyl demonstrate that fact. Similarly, four studies conducted over many years on the population living around two large nuclear power stations in Ontario have provided no evidence of such effects. The cases reported in the movie cannot credibly be linked to the operations of Gentilly-2.
Falsehood #4: A German study (KiKK) found that children living near nuclear power plants are at a higher risk of developing leukemia from radioactive releases.
Fact: The authors of the KiKK study and the German Commission on Radiological Protection have determined that the presence of clusters (or concentrations) of leukemia cases near some German nuclear power plants were not related to the radiation emitted by the facilities. In fact, some clusters are observed in different regions of Germany whether they have nuclear power plants or not. Other studies conducted in France, Britain and Switzerland found no relationship between how close someone lives to a nuclear power plant and the risk of leukemia.
Falsehood #5: There are no safe levels of exposure to radiation.
Fact: There are no observable negative health effects below certain level of radiation exposure - about 100 millisieverts (mSv). Every year, Canadians are exposed on average to about 1.8 mSv from natural background radiation. This means that in one year, residents living in Trois-Rivières and Bécancour get 900 times more radiation from natural background than from the man-made radiation from Gentilly-2.
Falsehood #6: All Canadian nuclear waste will be stored in Quebec.
Fact: None of the 21 communities that are currently part of the selection process underway for the establishment of a nuclear waste storage site in Canada is in Quebec.
The CNSC would never license nuclear facility operators if their activities posed a health risk to the public, workers or the environment."

Nuclear Fuel From the Sea

Very interesting! Nuclear Fuel From the Sea: ..."Next time you go to the beach, think about this: You’re swimming in nuclear fuel. Our oceans contain an estimated 4.5 billion metric tons of uranium, diluted down to a minuscule 3.3 parts per billion. The idea of extracting uranium from seawater has been kicking around for decades now, but the materials and processes to do so may finally be economically viable.
The best method works like this: A polymer substrate—basically, plastic—is irradiated, and then chemicals with an affinity for uranium are grafted onto it. The material is woven into 60-meter-long braids, and these are then brought out by boat to water at least 100 meters deep. The braids are chained to the ocean floor and allowed to float passively in the water, like an artificial kelp forest. After about 60 days, the boat returns and pulls in the adsorbent materials—now sporting a healthy yellow tint from the uranium. The plastic is then brought back to shore, and the uranium is eluted off."

Monday, 17 September 2012

UK stays cautious over thorium as nuclear fuel

UK stays cautious over thorium as nuclear fuel:
Also here is the link to the audio tape of a recent Quirks and Quarks program on Thorium:

Physicists patent nuclear waste-burning technology

Quite neat!: Physicists patent nuclear waste-burning technology: ..."University of Texas at Austin physicists have been awarded a U.S. patent for an invention that could someday be used to turn nuclear waste into fuel, thus removing the most dangerous forms of waste from the fuel cycle.
The researchers—Mike Kotschenreuther, Prashant Valanju, and Swadesh Mahajan of the College of Natural Sciences—have patented the concept for a novel fusion-fission hybrid nuclear reactor that would use nuclear fusion and fission together to incinerate nuclear waste. Fusion produces energy by fusing atomic nuclei, and fission produces energy by splitting atomic nuclei.
The process of burning the waste would also produce energy. The researchers' goal is to eliminate 99% of the most toxic transuranic waste from nuclear fission reactors.
"The potential for this kind of technology is enormous," says Mahajan, professor of physics. "Now that we have the patent, we hope this will open up opportunities to engage with the research and development community to further this potentially world-changing technology."
The researchers' patent covers a tokamak device, which uses magnetic fields to produce fusion reactions. The patented tokamak is surrounded by an area that would house a nuclear waste fuel source and waste by-products of the nuclear fuel cycle. The device is driven by a transformational technology called the Super X Divertor."

The posting at UT:

Also see:

Sunday, 16 September 2012

WNA: nuclear new-build investment set to top some $1.5 trillion (that is a "T") by 2030

WNA: nuclear new-build investment set to top some $1.5 trillion (that is a "T") by 2030: ..."With nuclear new-build investment set to top some $1.5 trillion by 2030, the World Nuclear Association (WNA) has launched an in-depth report assessing the role and development of a robust and reliable supply chain to support the growing nuclear power sector over the next two decades.
The World Nuclear Supply Chain: Outlook 2030 looks at the challenges and opportunities presented by plans for a total of 160 new units to enter service by 2030. It builds on work from the WNA's biennial Global Fuel Market Report, taking three scenarios for nuclear generating capacity to illustrate the range in size of the potential market for nuclear power plants.

Complete Nuclear Fuel Cycle

Complete Nuclear Fuel Cycle: ..."The complete nuclear cycle depicted below is not a far-off future low carbon energy source concept, though it does not exist yet in the U.S. This cycle began nearly 40 years ago in France, and is now generating more than 70% of the electricity used by French industry and homes.
With visionary legislative leadership, we can use the same cycle to help achieve our country’s economic, environmental and energy independence goals." see also:

Nuclear nightmare at Nordion

Nuclear nightmare at Nordion: ..."This may not be the end of the trauma for Nordion, the Kanata-based maker of isotopes used in nuclear medicine.
When an arbitrator early this week rejected its claim against Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Nordion shares immediately slumped nearly 40 per cent.
The problem discerned by Nordion’s shareholders had little to do with the uncertainty about where the firm will get future supplies of nuclear raw material — the stuff it uses to create products for detecting and treating cancer.
After all, it’s long been known that AECL’s ancient reactor, NRU, will be decommissioned in 2016 — which gives Nordion another four years to line up alternative suppliers, albeit more expensive ones based in other countries.
What investors didn’t like this week were the financial penalties that flow from losing the AECL arbitration. Not only will Nordion forgo compensation from AECL — which four years ago terminated the construction of nuclear reactors that were to have replaced the NRU. But it seems Nordion will be on the hook for covering its own and AECL’s legal fees.
Paradigm Capital analyst Alan Ridgeway estimates Nordion shelled out about $25 million in a losing cause and could pay a similar amount to AECL for its legal costs. (All figures are in U.S. dollars.)" the article states that NRU is set for decommissioning in 2016, however the original government announcement was that NRU will no longer produces isotopes beyond 2016, two different things! "We anticipate Canada will be out of the business," Mr. Harper told a news conference in 2009:   ...NRU has other functions than isotope production including nuclear science and technology research and last but not least is the primary neutron source in Canada...

AECL Hosts OCI Suppliers Day at the Chalk River Laboratories

AECL Hosts OCI Suppliers Day at the Chalk River Laboratories:  ..."Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and the Organization of CANDU Industries (OCI) are pleased to announce that the OCI Suppliers Day was once again held at the Chalk River Laboratories yesterday, welcoming over 50 nuclear vendors to the Ottawa Valley. The second annual fall trade show offered AECL employees the opportunity to network with representatives from the Canadian nuclear supply chain and to explore new commercial and technology development opportunities.
While the trade show was a clear success for OCI members, with vendor booths buzzing from start to finish, AECL also took the opportunity to showcase its own innovative technologies through displays and demonstrations. As a result, both organizations walked away with a better understanding of each other's technologies and capabilities, and of ways in which they could collaborate in using innovation to strengthen the Canadian nuclear supply chain.
In addition to the annual trade show, a joint workshop was hosted by OCI and AECL on September 11 to discuss innovation in Canada's nuclear supply chain. Among other issues, the workshop examined ways in which AECL can stimulate business innovation in the nuclear supply chain, and reviewed case studies involving successful AECL collaborations and commercial ventures. In addition to OCI and AECL representatives, a number of local elected officials and economic development professionals also attended to discuss economic opportunities in Renfrew County, including Cheryl Gallant, MP for Renfrew-Nipissing-Pembroke."

Point Lepreau to return to service at end of month

Point Lepreau to return to service at end of month: ..."The Point Lepreau nuclear generating station is scheduled to commence service at the end of the month, NB Power confirmed in filings Tuesday.
That start date hasn't changed in two years, even though crews finished most key jobs at Lepreau months earlier than expected.
It's raising questions about what's taking so long and whether Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. is being wrongly blamed for three years of delays and $1 billion in cost overruns.
"We believe that AECL could not deliver what they promised to deliver," Premier David Alward said last month.
However, there's evidence that NB Power caused delays of its own, including the commissioning of Lepreau, which is underway now."

Nuclear scientists end strike at Candu Energy

Nuclear scientists end strike at Candu Energy: ..."The contract, which runs to the end of 2016, calls for annual wage increases of 2 per cent, except for a 2.5 per cent increase in the final year, said Michael Ivanco, who headed the bargaining team for the Society of Professional Engineers and Associates.
The company says that, when merit increases are included, the average wage increase will be 3.6 per cent a year.
The union gave up its defined benefit pension plan and accepted a defined contribution plan in its place, Ivanco said.
“This isn’t the contract we wanted, but it isn’t the contract the company wanted, either,” he said"

Friday, 14 September 2012

The International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A great resource: "The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) hosts one of the world's largest collections of published information on the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. It offers online access to a unique collection of non-conventional literature. INIS is operated by the IAEA in collaboration with over 150 members." all searchable and available online!

Thursday, 13 September 2012

Are wind farms saving or killing us?

Are wind farms saving or killing us?   ..."Here is what the official trade body RenewableUK has to say on its website: ‘In over 25 years and with more than 68,000 machines installed around the world, no member of the public has ever been harmed by the normal operation of wind farms.’
But in order to believe that, you would have to discount the testimony of the thousands of people just like Aileen around the world who claim their health has been damaged by wind farms.
You would have to ignore the reports of doctors such as Australia’s Sarah Laurie, Canada’s Nina Pierpont and Britain’s Amanda Harry who have collated hundreds of such cases of Wind Turbine Syndrome.
And you’d have to reject the expertise of the acoustic engineers, sleep specialists, epidemiologists and physiologists who all testify that the noise generated by wind farms represents a major threat to public health.
‘If this were the nuclear industry, this is a scandal which would be on the front pages of every newspaper every day for months on end,’ says Chris Heaton-Harris, the Conservative MP for Daventry who has been leading the parliamentary revolt against wind farms, demanding that their subsidies be cut.
‘But because it’s wind it has been let off the hook. It shouldn’t be.’"

Development of nuclear batteries to power spacecraft from nuclear waste

Development of nuclear batteries to power spacecraft from nuclear waste: ..."Chemists at Britain's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) plan to make the batteries using Sellafield's large store of waste plutonium.
The batteries could then be used as a power supply for the European Space Agency's (ESA) spacecraft.
As well as the new jobs, this project could accrue significant UK multi-million pound exports.
In 2009, ESA funded a pilot project to examine the cost and practicality of establishing a European source of material for Radioactive Power Sources (RPS).
RPSs are ultra-long life batteries for use in the ESA's deep space programme.
The RPS batteries are not to launch the spacecraft, but to keep instruments running over several decades. "

Wednesday, 12 September 2012

Can US nuclear supply chain compete and win abroad?

Can US nuclear supply chain compete and win abroad?  ..."The US supply chain is coping with the likes of Southern Co's Vogtle nuclear power project. But non-US projects and suppliers abroad are gaining pace with new contract wins, which begs the question: are US companies prepared to compete with the new breed of competition abroad?
While the nuclear energy sector welcomes new MOUs in emerging nuclear energy markets; addressing US-led financing, sales and training contracts in today's deal markets, such as the United Arab Emirates, South Africa, China, Eastern Europe and India is perhaps a more pressing matter. The United States Ex-Im Bank is helping to move things along in this regard.
In June, United States Ex-Im Bank Chairman Fred Hochberg spoke at the Center for American Progress on US competitiveness overseas. He said that American companies' ability to win foreign sales is being “challenged by a dramatic rise in official export credit financing.” Hochberg also outlined how the US could become the world's leading exporter again and how American businesses can compete globally amidst the rise of state-driven capital. "

Tuesday, 11 September 2012

Inside the Advanced Photon Source

Inside the Advanced Photon Source: ..."The summer 2012 issue of Argonne Now carries a story entitled “Inside the Advanced Photon Source” that gives an overview of the facility and some of the research carried out here. The 37-page issue features a number of articles that underscore the wide range of research at Argonne." this is the direct link to pdf
Isn't that amazing to say that you are doing research to understand the basic properties of matter at the electronic level without the fear of funding cuts because your research didn't/wasn't directly related to industry/application/business??? after all it is natural to be able to control the materials properties to your advantage once you understand them at a fundamental level: "The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory is one of five national synchrotron radiation light sources supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science to carry out applied and basic research to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the electronic, atomic, and molecular levels, provide the foundations for new energy technologies, and support DOE missions in energy, environment, and national security."

Future of nuclear energy

Interesting short video to watch on the future of nuclear energy:

Strategic cooperation between Westinghouse and Czech construction/installation company Hutní montáže

Strategic cooperation between Westinghouse and Czech construction/installation company Hutní montáže in preparation for the potential construction of AP1000 in Czech Republic and regionally: ..."The strategic partnership marks a further important milestone in Westinghouse’s ongoing initiative to develop local partners and deliver a highly competitive tender to ČEZ for the construction of two AP1000 reactors at the Temelín nuclear power plant site. It follows a number of important Memoranda of Understandings between Westinghouse and major Czech companies, notably I&C Energo a.s., Metrostav a.s. and Vítkovice a.s., in an effort to establish a strong, diverse and high-quality local supply chain."

Monday, 10 September 2012

Decision in Arbitration with AECL Over Cancelled MAPLE Project

Decision in Arbitration with AECL Over Cancelled MAPLE Project:

"The majority of the tribunal ruled 2:1 that Nordion's claim against AECL in the arbitration was precluded under the terms of the 2006 Interim and Long-Term Supply Agreement (ILTSA) between Nordion and AECL. Thus, Nordion was not entitled
to a remedy under the ILTSA for the unilateral termination by AECL of the construction of the MAPLE facilities.
The arbitrators dismissed AECL's counterclaim against Nordion, which claimed damages for breach of contract in the amount of $250 million and other relief. "

the story in Ottawa Citizen:

Thursday, 6 September 2012

Safety Culture for Nuclear Licensees

The CNSC has released for public consultation, Discussion Paper DIS-12-07, Safety Culture for Nuclear Licensees which discussed the CNSC’s proposed approach for regulating safety culture in the Canadian nuclear industry (, invitation for comments is open now:

Germany -- Insane Or Just Plain Stupid?

Germany -- Insane Or Just Plain Stupid? ..."After the tsunami destroyed the Fukushima plants, Germany moved quickly to shut eight nuclear power plants, and made plans do away completely with their nuclear capability. Despite the best safety record of any industry in the country, and the critical role nuclear plays in fueling German industry, Germany’s past experience with large tsunamis was just too horrific to ignore. And Germany’s strong economy and commitment to protect the environment were small prices to pay for Chancellor Merkel to shore up her weak coalition with the Free Democrats. Maybe she can ask Greece for help later.
But don’t worry. Germany is building about 25 clean coal-fired power plants to offset the loss of nuclear and address Germany’s admittedly “unaffordably expensive and unreliable” renewable portfolio (Der Spiegel). The German Green Party can now celebrate the opening of a 2,200 MW coal-fired power plant near Cologne. It started spewing out its annual, relatively clean, 13 million tons of CO2, and other nasties, so much lower than those older dirty coal plants that would have put out 15 million tons of CO2 for the same power output.
A perfect fit to Germany’s low-carbon future.
We usually give the Germans credit for being rational, but this coal plant will emit over one million times more carbon this year than all of their nuclear plants would have over the next 20 years, and cost over twice as much to run as any one of the them. Germany’s present strategy will absolutely not allow them to reduce their carbon emissions anywhere near their goal of 40% by 2020.
Unless the German people give up the nice parts of their lifestyle and become insanely efficient, they most likely will not reduce their emissions at all by 2020."

Wednesday, 5 September 2012

Arbitrator's decision expected next week in nordion dispute with aecl

Arbitrator's decision expected next week in nordion dispute with aecl: ..."A decision is expected next week that could have a major impact on AECL in Chalk River. The decision stems from a dispute between AECL and Nordion over the MAPLE reactors. The new reactors ran into technical issues and the project was mothballed several years ago, over the protests of Nordion which was depending on the isotopes from the reactors to meet its needs. Nordion immediately filed for arbitration to force AECL to try and bring the MAPLE reactors on line or pay substantial monetary damages. A decision from the arbitration hearing is expected September 10th and the board could order the MAPLE project reactivated, or award damages, or order another course of action. Nordion has already said it may seek court relief if the arbitration ruling does not meet their approval. "

Recent cuts to NSERC MRS program

In case anyone has missed it, there is a recent report prepared by NDP's Critic for Science & Technology that details repercussions of recent NSERC MRS cut to major research facilities in Canada including the Canadian Neutron Beam Centre. The full report can be found at, the direct link to pdf is: ... here is the related excerpt from the pdf: "Canadian Neutron Beam Centre (Chalk River, ON)
The Canadian Neutron Beam Centre enables researchers to use neutron beams as tools for world-class materials research, which provides new understandings of materials and improves products for businesses. It is the only major neutron beam facility in Canada, and is part of an international network of about 20 such facilities around the world. This facility is a world-leader in the application of neutron beams to industrial research, working with researchers in heavy industries such as automotive, aerospace, defence, metal production, nuclear power, oil and gas, and rail to improve safety and performance of their products and services. In operation for 54 years, it was also home to Bertram Brockhouse, one of only three Canadians awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, for his work in the 1950s developing neutron beams into research tools.
Without MRS funding, the $30 million of installed capital in the neutron beam laboratory will be greatly underutilized, and the $500 million National Research Universal reactor that generates the neutrons will be further underutilized. The principal investigator outlines how the loss of MRS funding will affect educational and training opportunities:
The educational mandate associated with NSERC funding has allowed us to broaden the mission of the Canadian Neutron Beam Centre to include extensive outreach activities. Every two years we run a 5-day neutron summer school with 40-50 attendees where the students are introduced to neutron beam methods… The staff expends considerable efforts to assist new users to design and carry out their experiments and then follows through the analysis phase to make sure that experiments work and yield published results. It is this consistent commitment to the users’ success that has enabled us to grow the Canadian neutron user community. Falling back on the more limited (both in amount and scope) NRC support will leave us without

SMRs in MENA: a suitable solution for markets with smaller grid capacity?

A good read: SMRs in MENA: a suitable solution for markets with smaller grid capacity? .."Small modular reactors, also known as small and medium reactors or SMRs (defined by the IAEA as having ratings of under 300MW and up to 700MW, respectively) theoretically cost just a fraction of a full-size reactor.
Furthermore, since many of the components for an SMR can be assembled in a factory and then shipped ready-built, the concept should be much quicker and easier to deploy than a standard LWR.
This means a nation can invest more gradually in nuclear power, funding a rising number of SMRs as requirements dictate rather than having to commit upfront to a massive investment programme.
And because of their smaller capacity and built-in passive safety systems, they might conceivably be easier to legislate for and grant permission to. "

Tuesday, 4 September 2012

2012 CINS Anunal General Meeting October 26-27

Set your calendars for 2012 CINS Anunal General Meeting October 26-27, 2012 at Brock University: