Tuesday, 20 December 2011

60 years since the world’s first nuclear reactor powered four light bulbs

60 years ago, on December 20, 1951, the world’s first nuclear reactor generated electricity to power four light bulbs! This is a nice write up about the history and the future of nuclear energy: http://energy.gov/articles/60-years-nuclear-turned-lights "At 1:23pm on December 20, 1951, Argonne National Laboratory director Walter Zinn scribbled into his log book, “Electricity flows from atomic energy. Rough estimate indicates 45 kw.” At that moment, scientists from Argonne and the National Reactor Testing Station, the forerunner to today's Idaho National Laboratory, watched four light bulbs glow, powered by the world’s first nuclear reactor to generate electricity.
Fifteen years later, in Arco, Idaho, President Johnson stood at this same site and designated the reactor a national historic landmark. He said, “We have moved far to tame for peaceful uses the mighty forces unloosed when the atom was split. And we have only just begun. What happened here merely raised the curtain on a very promising drama in our long journey for a better life.”" also see http://www.inl.gov/ebr/ for more info on this first reactor EBR-1... 
also for a video tour of this reactor see: http://www.inl.gov/research/experimental-breeder-reactor-1/

Monday, 19 December 2011

Nuclear waste storage in Canada

Aside from using a language that seems biased against nuclear power and aside from making it like a sensational story, this series of articles seem to be an in-depth reporting on the issue: http://www.ottawacitizen.com/news/Canada+nuclear+cleanup+will+cost+billions+dollars+take+decades+complete/5874209/story.html ... see also: http://www.ottawacitizen.com/news/atomic-wasteland/index.html .... let us not forget that other energy sources also have hazardous implications for thousands of years and beyond (CO2 greenhouse effect, global warming which could be irreversible)... to stop using the nuclear technology that is clean compared to other sources of energy as well as its other benefits such as medical isotopes and neutron scattering because of the waste seems to be shortsighted... Nuclear waste has been and continues to be stored safely... quoting McCauley, the director of the uranium and radioactive waste division at Natural Resources Canada in the article: "My view is that we’ve got a pretty good story ... to tell in terms of radioactive waste management. I’m not saying that it’s not a big challenge for us, but I do think we’ve got the framework in place that we can be successful."

Friday, 16 December 2011

Will Saskatchewan build a nuclear power plant?

Listen to Premier Brad Wall, Government of Saskatchewan, answering the question whether Saskatchewan will build a nuclear power plant on December 13, 2011. Paraphrasing: 1. Saskatchewan continues to find ways to add value to uranium mining in the province, 2. Saskatchewan is working with private sector and UofS establishing the nuclear research centre there, 3. Saskatchewan is working with Hitachi on developing small reactor technology, 4. Saskatchewan will continue working on nuclear medicine reclaiming its leadership position in that field: http://www.sunnewsnetwork.ca/video/1325532118001
 See also the recent budget address: http://www.finance.gov.sk.ca/budget2011-12/BudgetAddress "This year our government is providing Innovation Saskatchewan with $3.5 million for research into areas with promising commercial potential in clean energy, nuclear science and medicine and agriculture biotechnology.
Over the next 7 years our government will invest $40 million to establish Saskatchewan as an international leader in nuclear medicine, science, engineering and safety. "
see: http://www.hitachi.com/New/cnews/110825a.html also see: http://www.gov.sk.ca/news?newsId=19c54e4f-13e9-40f3-b56b-5dc9ac4de086

Thursday, 15 December 2011

Discovery of Radioactivity by Henri Becquerel

115 years ago, in 1896 Henri Becquerel while investigating phosphorescence in uranium salts accidentally discovered radioactivity. He was born on December 15, 1852. In honour of his birthday, here is a good historical read on this life changing discovery: http://ansnuclearcafe.org/2011/12/13/henri-becquerels-discovery-of-radioactivity/ ... "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903 was divided, one half awarded to Antoine Henri Becquerel "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity", the other half jointly to Pierre Curie and Marie Curie, née Sklodowska "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel": http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1903/ ... and also: http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1903/becquerel-bio.html

Wednesday, 14 December 2011

An interview with Dr. Ted Hsu, recently elected Liberal MP for Kingston and the Islands, about science policy in Canada

A must read interview with Dr. Ted Hsu, recently elected Liberal MP for Kingston and the Islands, about science policy in Canada published in the July-Sept. 2011 issue of Physics in Canada (http://www.cap.ca/en/article/interview-ted-hsu-liberal-mp-kingston-and-islands-conducted-june-2-2011), well said Dr. Hsu: "I would like to see Canada build a new research reactor. This is not something that is party policy. Personally as far as nuclear power is concerned I would like nuclear power to compete on a fully-costed basis and leave it at that. By fully-costed I mean making sure we take into account the full cost of decommissioning and waste disposal and the risk of something going wrong. But a research reactor is a different thing. It’s easy in the physics community to say “Let’s build a research reactor. You know it’s not the same as a power reactor” and physicists understand that but the general public doesn’t. There is still a certain element of fear of nuclear anything, so I think it will require some good communication to explain that no, Canada has a Nobel prize in neutron scattering and we had a world-leading facility in Chalk River that brought industrial and basic researchers from all over the world to collaborate with Canadian scientists, to train Canadian students and bring leading-edge research to Canada. That this reactor is very old and it’s going to break down in a few years again and we are after all made of nuclei but people tell me the average voter may not even know that or be able to vocalize that. So if you want to study matter then you need a source of neutrons and if you want to make medical isotopes you need to have a reactor and if nuclear energy is going to be part of the energy mix in the future, then you need to study how materials are affected by radiation. I think there is a very good case to be made that Canada should commit to build a new research reactor and commit to being in the lead again in research in that area. So that’s something that I would like to see."

Tuesday, 13 December 2011

Small modular reactors: key to future nuclear power generation in the US?

Do small modular reactors hold the key to future nuclear power generation in the US? a study released earlier this month from the Energy Policy Institute at the University of Chicago (EPIC) concludes yes indeed: http://news.uchicago.edu/article/2011/12/13/small-reactors-could-figure-us-energy-future "“Clearly, a robust commercial SMR industry is highly advantageous to many sectors in the United States,” concluded the study, led by Robert Rosner, institute director and the William Wrather Distinguished Service Professor in Astronomy & Astrophysics.
“It would be a huge stimulus for high-valued job growth, restore U.S. leadership in nuclear reactor technology and, most importantly, strengthen U.S. leadership in a post-Fukushima world, on matters of nuclear safety, nuclear security, nonproliferation, and nuclear waste management,” the report said.
The SMR report was one of two that Rosner rolled out Thursday, Dec. 1, at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, D.C. Through his work as former chief scientist and former director of Argonne National Laboratory, Rosner became involved in a variety of national policy issues, including nuclear and renewable energy technology development.
The reports assessed the economic feasibility of classical, gigawatt-scale reactors and the possible new generation of modular reactors. The latter would have a generating capacity of 600 megawatts or less, would be factory-built as modular components, and then shipped to their desired location for assembly." ..., here is the link to the full report: https://epic.sites.uchicago.edu/sites/epic.uchicago.edu/files/uploads/EPICSMRWhitePaperFinalcopy.pdf

Monday, 12 December 2011

Why nuclear power plants might cost several times more than they should in initial capital investments

This is a great read by Rod Adams as to why nuclear power plants might cost several times more than they should in initial capital investments: http://atomicinsights.com/2011/12/examples-of-regulatory-costs-for-nuclear-energy-development.html

TRIUMF continues to pursue the production of technetium-99m by medical cyclotron technology

TRIUMF continues to pursue the production of technetium-99m by medical cyclotron technology... even if this will be viable route, let's not forget that a new reactor replacing the aging NRU not only could produce medical isotopes but also it could allow neutron scattering to continue for many years more... here is a recent report by TRIUMF on their activities: http://www.triumf.ca/headlines/workshops-conferences/triumf-global-isotopes-conversation ... "This week, Dr. Thomas J. Ruth is participating in a 3-day "Moly-99 Topical Meeting" in Santa Fe, New Mexico, organized by the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration. Tom is one of only three Canadians invited to the workshop (the other being from the Government of Canada and Nordion). The meeting features leaders from the major U.S. laboratories and research organizations as well as nuclear-medicine companies and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. Tom is speaking about the NISP program he leads with support from Natural Resources Canada that is demonstrating how existing, conventional medical cyclotrons can be modestly upgraded to become viable suppliers of Tc-99m for locall urban regions. "
 This is the link to more details on their joint program with Natural Resources Canada: http://www.triumf.ca/nrcan-nisp

Safe disposal of nuclear waste from new nuclear power reactors without cost to taxpayers

Is safe disposal of nuclear waste from new nuclear power reactors without cost to taxpayers possible? The UK seems to have a solution: "From the start of generation, operators of new nuclear power plants will be required to set aside enough money to meet this expected cost. A cap has also been set, giving operators certainty of the maximum that they would pay, and this is set at about three times the current estimate." ... "What this boils down to is a charge per unit of electricity generated. An operator can expect to pay £0.20 ($0.31) per MWh if the facility is built to current cost estimates with a cap of £0.71 ($1.11) per MWh. These compare to current prices of electricity for a large industrial user of about £83 ($130) per MWh."... read more: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/WR_Waste_costs_for_UK_new_build_0912111.html

Ontario’s Long Term Energy Plan

Ontario’s Long Term Energy Plan (OLTEP) allocates 46 per cent of future grid space to nuclear generation, see here for the full plan in pdf: http://www.energy.gov.on.ca/en/ltep/ ... A recent report by Ontario Sustainable Energy Association (OSEA) just released suggests there is no business case for nuclear power and without subsidies the industry would not survive in Ontario... The report, Nuclear Power: Where’s the Business Case can be found here: http://www.ontario-sea.org/Page.asp?PageID=122&ContentID=3483). It argues that nuclear power retains an unfair advantage over renewable power generators because of federal and provincial subsidies and also that no nuclear project has ever been delivered on time and on budget in Ontario ... There is a must read review of this report on Renew Canada pointing out the reports shortcomings: http://renewcanada.net/2011/osea-ontario-doesnt-need-nuclear/ : "However, the report fails to explain why a significant investment in nuclear reactors from OPG will actually affect Hydro One’s ability to invest in local distribution systems. The report cites the construction of the Bruce to Milton transmission line as a $650 million subsidy to nuclear power(because Bruce Nuclear required the transmission line to feed power from the newly refurbished reactors at its site), but fails to mention that this transmission line is serving a dual purpose–it also allows major wind farms a connection point for grid access. While it is true that the project is primarily for Bruce Nuclear, the report does not make it clear that major renewable generators will also gain increased transmission access.
OSEA further suggests that Ontario does not require nuclear power for baseload supply because of the availability of hydroelectricity and the opportunities for major industries to adopt Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems. Yet, the report does not provide any numbers showing how much energy will be required in the future. The OLTEP suggests, under its medium growth forecast, that the province will require approximately 160 TwHs of electricity per year. With no reference to these kinds of numbers in its report, OSEA has a hard time proving that Ontario will not require additional baseload power. In addition, there are no numbers showing the potential available megawatts of power from hydroelectric and CHP projects. This, again, makes it difficult to assert that Ontario will not require additional baseload power." ... "While the report does accurately describe the reasons why nuclear power is an incredibly expensive and heavily subsidized form of energy, it does not prove that renewable energy can replace nuclear. By failing to show how much energy could be generated by the suggested baseload replacements, or how much energy Ontario will require in the future, the report fails to demonstrate that Ontario does not need nuclear power."

Wednesday, 7 December 2011

US steps up efforts on producing HEU-free medical isotopes

US steps up efforts on producing HEU-free medical isotopes (I am not sure whether there are any plans or efforts already on the way to convert the HEU medical isotopes at NRU or not): "An agreement by the US Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to fund $2.3 million in development work at NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes could lead to creation of a domestic supply for molybdenum-99, the most widely used medical radioisotope. The cost-shared cooperative agreement will help the Madison, Wisconsin, company with development of its accelerator-based process for manufacturing the isotope by bombarding targets of the naturally occurring isotope 100Mo with gamma rays." ... "the US is without a domestic source of 99Mo, an isotope with a 66-hour half-life whose decay product, metastable technetium-99 (99mTc), is used in 8 out of 10 nuclear medicine procedures—about 16 million imaging procedures annually in the US. For decades, roughly half the world’s output of 99Mo has been provided, and most of the US demand has been met, by the Canadian company Nordion, which processes HEU targets irradiated at the aging National Research Universal (NRU) reactor in Chalk River, Ontario.
In recent years the NRU has been forced to shut down for extended periods, which produced severe shortages of 99Mo. In October NRU operator Atomic Energy of Canada reaffirmed previous commitments to halt medical isotope production in 2016." ... "In addition to its cooperative agreement with NorthStar, the NNSA is funding different novel approaches to 99Mo production at three other US companies: GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy has

Tuesday, 6 December 2011

U of Saskatchewan cobalt-60 legacy

U of Saskatchewan must see videos: "about the cobalt-60 legacy, new U of S initiatives that advance nuclear medicine, and former or current U of S scientists who’ve made advances in medical imaging and nuclear medicine research. Some of these videos are produced by the U of S and some are produced by others." http://www.usask.ca/cobalt60/videos.php
Also see: http://www.usask.ca/cobalt60/

Building CANDU in Ontario

Now that the restructuring of AECL is completed is the time to make decisions about new nuclear builds in Ontario as well as the future of Chalk River Labs including building a new research reactor to replace the aging NRU: "To win internationally we have to win domestically”. The need for collaborative efforts between the Canadian nuclear industry, its partners and all levels of government is needed to encourage growth and development in the Canadian Nuclear industry, an industry expert told local business and industry representatives..." ..."Mr. Lamarre noted that to win internationally we have to win domestically and the decision to build CANDU in Ontario would send a powerful signal to the global nuclear marketplace that Ontario has a leading energy-generating manufacturing technology. Mr. Lamarre said that support of Durham Region is essential to CANDU and the future of the industry in Ontario and Canada and that we all need to be ambassadors for this technology.
Mr. Lamarre finished by identifying the need for collaborative efforts between the Canadian nuclear industry, its partners and all levels of government in encouraging growth and development in the industry. Mr. Lamarre identifying the potential of the creation a ‘nuclear cluster’ in southern Ontario, incorporating existing nuclear industries and offering opportunities for future expansion.
A clearly defined national nuclear energy strategy is supported by the Greater Oshawa Chamber of Commerce." read more: http://www.oshawachamber.com/What-s-New/building-candu-in-ontario-would-send-powerful-signal.html

Companies should think nuclear

Companies should think nuclear: "Imagine if a Hamilton company won a contract to build a supertanker in its port. Now imagine if there was a contract to build 90 supertankers throughout southern Ontario.
The multimillion-dollar refurbishment of the Darlington nuclear power plant scheduled to start in 2014 has the equivalent potential to boost the province’s economy."... "“There does need to be some internal discussion around (the importance of nuclear),” she said about government departments. “People have to stop tiptoeing around nuclear.”"... read more: http://www.thespec.com/news/business/article/634825--backers-urge-area-companies-to-think-nuclear

A national energy strategy?

A national energy strategy must be established before it is too late, a national dialouge is a good start!: "The federal government must start playing a more active role in establishing an energy strategy and coordinating with Canadian provinces. If they don’t, we will leave it up to industry and our American partners to define what this strategy should be."... "We need to address nuclear energy issues such as nuclear waste management and the future role of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), the exploration of inter-provincial energy and electricity interconnectedness and opportunities, technology developments and R&D investments for cleaner energy generation and extraction. We also need to deal with energy supplies and security in northern communities and the risks of deep water and Arctic drilling for oil and gas resources."... read more: http://www.hilltimes.com/policy-briefing/2011/12/05/we-need-a-coordinated-national-strategy-more-than-any-in-the-world/29012

Sunday, 4 December 2011

Wind farms littering the planet

A point of view on the wind turbines for electricity production: "There are many hidden truths about the world of wind turbines from the pollution and environmental damage caused in China by manufacturing bird choppers, the blight on people’s lives of noise and the flicker factor and the countless numbers of birds that are killed each year by these blots on the landscape.
The symbol of Green renewable energy, our saviour from the non existent problem of Global Warming, abandoned wind farms are starting to litter the planet as globally governments cut the subsidies taxes that consumers pay for the privilege of having a very expensive power source that does not work every day for various reasons like it’s too cold or the wind speed is too high." read more: http://toryaardvark.com/2011/11/17/14000-abandoned-wind-turbines-in-the-usa/

Dec. 2 1942, a double milestone for nuclear research

Dec. 2 1942, a double milestone for nuclear research: first man-made sustained nuclear chain reaction was created this day 69 years ago ( http://aps.org/publications/apsnews/201112/physicshistory.cfm) and then 15 years later in 1957, the first full-scale nuclear power plant went online. This is a nice write up about bothe events: http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2008/12/dayintech_1202 ... also see: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/fermi-produces-the-first-nuclear-chain-reaction, see also: http://www.wbez.org/blog/john-r-schmidt/2011-12-02/december-2-1942-enrico-fermi-and-atomic-chicago-94361
This is also a nice summary of the history of uranium: http://www.virginiaenergyresources.com/s/UraniumFacts.asp?ReportID=138056
As you may know Canada was also putting in efforts to achieve the sustained nuclear chain reaction during the same time period, the reason they lost to the Americans in the race was access to large quantities of high purity graphite. There is a very nice write up by George C. Laurence detailing these efforts: "Experiments in Ottawa
Heavy water was scarce and costly to produce. The 185 kilograms, that the French scientists had obtained from a hydroelectric plant in Norway and brought to England, was most of the world's supply. Rough calculations with the inaccurate data then available suggested that it might be possible to obtain a large release of energy using some form of carbon, instead of heavy water, with the uranium. Carbon would be less suitable for the purpose but was cheaper and easier to obtain. I decided to experiment with carbon and uranium oxide. The experiment would have to be done mostly in overtime because my small section was very busy assisting Canadian industry to become proficient in the radiographic inspection of parts for military aircraft and other equipment. Months later, I learned without surprise that similar experiments with carbon and uranium had been started both in England and the United States at about the same time.
The purpose of the experiment was to determine whether a very large release of nuclear energy would be possible in a large bulk of the kinds of uranium and carbon which I had. It would be possible if at least as many neutrons were released by fission as were captured. That implied that if an independent source of neutrons is surrounded by a small quantity (i.e. a few tonnes) of the combination of uranium and carbon, more neutrons would reach the surrounding walls than if the combination of materials was not present.
In our experiments in Ottawa to test this, the source of neutrons was beryllium mixed with a radium compound in a metal tube about 2.5 centimetres long.   Alpha particles, emitted spontaneously from the radium, bombarded atoms of beryllium and released neutrons from them.   The carbon was in the form of ten tonnes of calcined petroleum coke, a very fine black dust that easily spread over floors, furniture and ourselves.   The uranium was 450 kilograms of black oxide, which was borrowed from Eldorado Gold Mines Limited.   It was in small paper sacks distributed amongst larger paper sacks of the petroleum coke.
The sacks of uranium and coke were held in a wooden bin, so that they occupied a space that was roughly spherical, 2.7 m in diameter.   The wooden bin was lined with paraffin wax about five centimetres thick to reduce the escape of neutrons.   The arrangement is shown above, as a sectional view through the bin and its contents.
A thin wall metal tube supported the neutron source at the centre of the bin, and provided a passage for insertion of a neutron detector which could be placed at different distances from the source.   In the first tests the detector was a silver coin, but in most of the experiments it was a layer of dysprosium oxide on an aluminum disc.
The experimental routine was to expose the detector to the neutrons for a suitable length of time, then remove it quickly from the assembly and place it in front of a Geiger counter to measure the radioactivity produced in it by the neutrons.   The Geiger counter tubes and the associated electrical instruments were homemade because there was very little money to spend on equipment.
The relative rates of neutron capture and neutron release by fission were calculated from the data obtained.   If the release had been greater than the capture it would have been possible to estimate the "critical quantity" of uranium and coke, that is the minimum quantity needed to produce a self-sustained reaction that would release a large amount of nuclear energy.
Prof. B. Sargent of Queen's University joined me in these experiments during the summer university vacations of 1941 and 1942.   Progress was slow because the work was interrupted by other duties and we lacked the better equipment that would be available today.
By late summer in 1942, our measurements had shown that the release of neutrons by fission in our combination of materials was a few percent less than the capture.   Therefore, it would not be possible to obtain a large release of nuclear energy in that combination of materials even if large quantities were used.   There was too much loss of neutrons by capture in impurities in the coke and uranium oxide and in the small quantities of paper and brass that were present.   We did not then realize how a little impurity could lead to failure.
Meanwhile in the United States, E. Fermi, H.L. Anderson, B. Field, G. Weil and W. Zinn, after a first attempt that was also unsuccessful, did succeed in showing that a large release of energy would be possible using purer uranium and very pure carbon in the form of graphite.   Using the necessarily larger quantities, the Americans then built the first nuclear reactor and operated it on December 2, 1942.   They called it an "atomic pile".
In the summer of 1940, R.H. Fowler visited Ottawa, followed soon by J.D. Cockroft.   They had been to the United States to stimulate greater American interest in research of military importance.   They told me about the nuclear energy research in England and that in the United States which they had just seen.
With Prof. Fowler's introduction, I visited L.J. Briggs, who was chairman of the committee that coordinated the American nuclear energy research at that time, and also J.B. Conant, E. Fermi, H.C. Urey and P.H. Abelson and learned of their work.   After my visit, we received in Ottawa copies of reports on the American nuclear energy research for the next two years.   One of them that was particularly helpful was "A Study Concerning Uranium as a Source of Power" by J.B. Fisk and W. Shockly, dated September 17, 1940, a remarkable theoretical discussion of the feasibility of a nuclear reactor to have been written so early.
In response to Cockroft's suggestion when he returned to England we received a gift of $5,000 from Imperial Chemical Industries, which was involved in the nuclear research in England, in support of our experiment.   It was an important addition to our budget, but I valued it most as an expression to Dr. Mackenzie of British confidence in our work." read more: http://media.cns-snc.ca/history/early_years/earlyyears.html

Monday, 28 November 2011

Nearly 14% of electricity generated in the world is from nuclear

did you know: "Nuclear power now accounts for nearly 14% of electricity generated in the world with 440 active reactors in 30 countries, according to the World Nuclear Association (WNA). Six countries, the United States, France, Japan, Russia, Germany and South Korea, account for three-quarters of the energy so generated." see nice graphics here: http://news.sympatico.cbc.ca/world/contentposting/the_role_of_nuclear_power_in_the_world/bcb64876

Cardiac Nuclear Imaging

Cardiac Nuclear Imaging: another application of nuclear technology, this time in medicine, a nice read: http://www.dicardiology.com/article/enhancing-cardiac-nuclear-imaging

50 Years of Nuclear-Powered Spacecrafts

Here are a couple of good articles to learn more about how nuclear fuel is used for space missions and its history: http://www.space.com/12118-space-nuclear-power-50-years-transit-4a.html ..., see also: http://www.space.com/13709-plutonium-shortage-nasa-planetary-science-future.html ...."Plutonium-238, which is different than the type of plutonium used in nuclear weapons, emits heat that is converted into electricity. The material has been particularly useful on missions that venture into the outer solar system, where the scant sunlight cannot effectively be harnessed using solar panels."

Friday, 25 November 2011

Nuclear-powered rover Curiosity will be launched to the red planet on Saturday

Nuclear-powered rover Curiosity, the most complex and powerful robotic space vehicle ever built for research on distant planets, will be launched to Mars on Saturday! The price tag only $2.5-billion (more than what it takes to build a research reactor): http://news.nationalpost.com/2011/11/24/nasa-set-to-launch-2-5-billion-car-sized-mars-rover-to-search-for-life-on-the-red-planet/ ... also see: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P4boyXQuUIw&feature=related

Tuesday, 22 November 2011

Neutron scattering at CRL is mentioned in the Parliament

Parliament session: Nov. 21, 2011, neutron scattering at CRL is mentioned in a speech by the Renfrew—Nipissing—Pembroke member of Parliament, Mrs. Cheryl Gallant: http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?Mode=1&Pub=hansard&Language=E This is the part related to neutron scattering: "Using the technique that Brockhouse pioneered, the NRC Canadian Neutron Beam Centre at NRU today enables scientists from across Canada and around the world to investigate new materials with neutrons. In fact, after the tragedy with the space shuttle Challenger, NASA commissioned the Canadian Neutron Beam Centre to determine whether or not it was a seal that caused the accident.
Dr. Dominic Ryan, president of the Canadian Institute for Neutron Scattering, outlined that the NRC-CNBC in Chalk River is Canada's scientific hub for research using neutron beams as probes of materials. Since everything is made of material, even our own bodies, materials research using neutron beams has a broad range of applications."

This is the full speech:
"Mrs. Cheryl Gallant (Renfrew—Nipissing—Pembroke, CPC): next intervention
Mr. Speaker, I will be sharing my time with the member for Willowdale.
It is my pleasure on behalf of the people of Renfrew--Nipissing--Pembroke to speak in support of the legislation before us, the keeping Canada's economy and jobs growing act.
The decision by the people of Canada to vote in favour of a strong, stable, majority government was our mandate to get on with the job of providing Canadians with good government.

Sunday, 20 November 2011

The NIST Center for Neutron Research: Over 40 Years Serving NIST/NBS and the Nation

This is a great document describing the history of the NIST reactor and neutron program over the past 50 years, the full pdf could be found at: http://www.ncnr.nist.gov/NCNRHistory_Rush_Cappelletti.pdf by Jack Rush (a NIST Senior Fellow (Emeritus) and was the leader of neutron scattering research at the NCNR for 35 years) and Ron Cappelletti (Professor of Physics (Emeritus), Ohio University, has worked as a physicist at the NCNR since 1999): "This brief history will attempt to place the NBSR and its evolution into the most heavily used and productive neutron source in the United States within the perspective of events of the last half of the twentieth century which greatly influenced the need for large facilities in American science and technology (and at NBS)."

Jeff Lynn wins Presidential Rank Award

Jeff Lynn wins Presidential Rank Award for his many contributions to condensed matter physics. Congratulations Jeff, this is richly deserved! http://www.ncnr.nist.gov/news/Lynn_Presidential_Rank_Award.html

Nuclear-powered Mars Rover ready for launch

Nuclear-powered Mars Rover ready for launch: "it’s does not have solar panels, and that’s because it does not need them. NASA has opted for a more reliable miniature nuclear battery to serve as Curiosity’s main power source."... "A few days before the rover's scheduled launch on November 25, NASA scientists will install the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator. The generator is equipped with thermocouples that convert the heat generated from the natural decay of the plutonium dioxide into electricity. The power supply can provide Curiosity with a constant 110 watts of electricity that will allow the rover to travel farther than previous rovers and use more powerful analytical tools, all while continuously recharging its batteries." http://www.pcworld.com/article/242302/the_next_mars_rover_is_nuclearpowered.html , see also: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NN_One_week_to_go_for_nuclear_rover_1811111.html

Wednesday, 16 November 2011

Candu Energy Inc looks for a boost in Ontario

Candu Energy Inc has put development of ACR technology on hold, but "Patrick Lamarre, who heads Candu Energy Inc., told the Toronto Board of Trade there’s plenty of business for the company to go after with its existing technology. And he urged the Ontario government to commit soon to building new Candu reactors at the Darlington nuclear station in order to boost Candu’s credibility with foreign buyers." read more: http://www.thestar.com/business/companies/article/1077147--candu-energy-seeks-ontario-boost ... the full address could be found as a pdf file here: http://www.bot.com/AM/TemplateRedirect.cfm?template=%2FCM%2FContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=7481

Monday, 14 November 2011

Cobalt-60 at 60: The Legacy of Saskatchewan’s Innovative Cancer Treatment

Cobalt-60 at 60: The Legacy of Saskatchewan’s Innovative Cancer Treatment, an open-house event on December 4, 2011... seems a great event with a great panel discussion after the official opening ceremony: "Following the formal opening ceremony, the WDM has organized, in partnership with the University of Saskatchewan, a discussion by a panel of experts from the field of nuclear medicine on the legacy of the cobalt bomb. Speakers will include Dr. Paul Babyn, Dr. John Root and Dr. L. Dean Chapman from the U of S in Saskatoon, and Dr. David Pantalony from the Canada Science and Technology Museum, Ottawa."... check out the details: http://wdm.ca/stoon/cobalt_opening.html
more on celebrating cobalt-60 at 60: http://www.lhsc.on.ca/About_Us/LHSC/Publications/Features/Cobalt-60.htm
Also see: http://communications.uwo.ca/western_news/opinions/2011/October/cobalt60_celebrates_60_years.html 

Saturday, 12 November 2011

SNC-Lavalin is forecasting profits for its Candu Energy sector next year

SNC-Lavalin is forecasting profits for its Candu Energy sector next year: "SNC-Lavalin is forecasting operating profits for its Candu Energy sector next year, a month after completing the acquisition of the commercial division of the Atomic Energy of Canada.
“Despite the challenge we face, we are confident that Candu Energy is well-positioned for 2012 given the opportunities in this sector as well as the quality and professionalism of our new 1,400 personnel,” CEO Pierre Duhaime said Friday in a conference call.
The company took on more workers than originally forecast, in part, because it won a contract to upgrade Argentina’s 27-year-old Embalse generating station. The $440-million deal followed five years of discussions. The total refurbishment will cost more than US$1.3 billion and take some five years to complete. Additional projects are possible in Ontario and Quebec, along with new build construction opportunities in Romania, Jordan and Ontario." read more: http://www.canadianmanufacturing.com/design-engineering/news/snc-bullish-on-nuclear-division-46511

CANDUs can be more flexible than natural gas-fired & hydro generation

CANDUs can be more flexible than natural gas-fired & hydro generation: "New nuclear build in Ontario will be highly manoeuvrable with a dispatchable power range wider than gas or coal and could even have dispatching preference over hydro. See Appendix which describes the operation of the Ontario grid." read more: http://canadianenergyissues.com/2011/11/09/ontarios-nuclear-electric-generation-can-be-more-flexible-than-natural-gas-fired-generation/

Tuesday, 8 November 2011

Saskatchewan Party is re-elected in record fashion

Saskatchewan Party is re-elected in record fashion! great news for nuclear developments in Saskatchewan as the Canadian Centre for Nuclear Innovation (http://news.usask.ca/2011/10/18/council-approves-nuclear-innovation-centre/) was recently established with funding from this government, with a great promise to put Saskatchewan at the forefront of the research and technology in the country and internationally. As the Saskatchewan Premier says this will allow them to be able to "do more than simply taking it out of ground"!!! (http://www.watchmojo.com/tv/Grab/CBC/4708465/) ... Go Saskatchewan!!! Congratulations to Premier Brad Wall and his team! keep up the good work! http://news.nationalpost.com/2011/11/07/brad-wall-scores-another-victory-in-saskatchewan-election/

Monday, 7 November 2011

144th birthday of the remarkable physicist, Marie Curie, is celebrated around the world

144th birthday of the remarkable physicist, Marie Curie, is celebrated around the world. She was born Nov. 7, 1867. Here are a few good sites to explore about her life and achievements: http://www.staff.amu.edu.pl/~zbzw/ph/sci/msc.htm ..., http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/95nov/curie.html , ... http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1911/marie-curie.html ,... http://inventionsdiscoveries.com/2011/11/1194/ ,... http://www.aip.org/history/curie/ , ... http://www.aip.org/history/curie/ (you could download the entire site as a pdf), ... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0vTRrZU-LKQ (a great short video) ,... and this is how google is celebrating this day: http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2011/nov/07/marie-curie-birth-google-doodle?newsfeed=true
"Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is the time to understand more, so that we may fear less." Marie Curie

Sunday, 6 November 2011

Periodic Table swells with three new elements named

Periodic Table swells with three new elements named: "The elements are numbered 110, 111 and 112 and are called darmstadtium (Ds), roentgenium (Rg) and copernicium (Cn)." Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2058054/Elementary-dear-Copernicus-Three-new-members-join-periodic-table.html#ixzz1cvPMGDLx
Also see: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/science-news/8871840/Periodic-Table-swells-as-three-new-elements-named.html

Bill Gates on energy: Innovating to zero!

A must see: "At TED2010, Bill Gates unveils his vision for the world's energy future, describing the need for "miracles" to avoid planetary catastrophe and explaining why he's backing a dramatically different type of nuclear reactor. The necessary goal? Zero carbon emissions globally by 2050." http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/bill_gates.html
This is also a must see, Nuclear Energy After Fukushima: "in a video broadcast to the International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation, Bill discusses what governments and the private sector can do to increase the role of nuclear power in delivering safe, affordable, and clean energy to the world – and especially to the poor." http://www.thegatesnotes.com/Topics/Energy/Nuclear-Energy-After-Fukushima

Saturday, 5 November 2011

Oct. 1908 -- Lord Ernest Rutherford receives the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research on the chemistry of radioactive substances

Wow it is incredible: it has been 103 years since Lord Ernest Rutherford was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research on the chemistry of radioactive substances in Oct. 1908. Here (http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Ernest_Rutherford) is a nice bio for "father" of nuclear physics. Among quotes referred to him, I love this one the best!:) "All science is either physics or stamp collecting" (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Rutherford)

Nordion-AECL arbitration hearings extended

And Nordion-AECL arbitration hearings saga gets extension: http://biotuesdays.com/2011/10/21/nordion-aecl-arbitration-hearings-extended/

CANDU business continues

Meanwhile CANDU business continues: "Companies that supply parts for Candu nuclear plants say a new contract to refurbish a reactor in Argentina will mean $100 million worth of business for them.
The newly privatized arm of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Candu Energy, signed the $400-million deal with Argentina in August to overhaul a Candu reactor that has been providing electricity in Argentina since 1984.
Companies that make up the supply chain for Candu say the contract will keep skilled jobs in Canada." http://www.cbc.ca/news/business/story/2011/10/08/candu-reactor-argentina.html

Chalk River Nuclear Labs will receive more funding

Chalk River Nuclear Labs will receive more funding in the budget: "Another $200 million — on top of nearly $250 million previously approved — will be coughed up for Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's research laboratories and the Chalk River facility that are still a part of the financially troubled Crown corporation.": http://www.canada.com/life/Feds+hook+million+sold+AECL+reactor+division/5654186/story.html

AECL gets new leadership

AECL gets new chief executive, chairman: it is great to have a scientist leading the laboratories especially in these crucial times with uncertain future!: "Ottawa said Robert Walker, who was senior vice-president of nuclear laboratories at AECL, will take over from Hugh MacDiarmid as chief executive.
Walker, an engineer by training, has also worked as assistant deputy minister of science and technology at the Department of National Defence and the chief executive of Defence Research and Development Canada.": http://www.cbc.ca/news/business/story/2011/10/07/aecl-chief-executive.html
Here is the link to Dr. Robert Walker's bio: www.cna.ca/english/pdf/bios/Bob_Walker.pdf
Same story at Canada.com: http://blogs.canada.com/2011/10/07/troubled-aecl-gets-new-leadership/

AECL to submit a plan to CNSC for the end of operation or for continued operation of NRU beyond 2016 by mid-2014

Also here is the link to the CNSC Transcript of Public Hearing for license renewal. One quite important point in the document is: "Additionally, CNSC staff recommend that AECL develop and submit for the approval of the Commission, by June 30th, 2014, a plan for the end of operation or for continued operation of the NRU reactor beyond 2016. This will ensure that there is a defined approach for the future of NRU well before the expiry of the proposed licence." The significance of this statement is that informs AECL that the uncertainty about the long term future of NRU reactor cannot go on for ever... (http://www.google.ca/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=as+part+of+the+new+five-year+licence%2C+aecl+required+submit+a+plan+by+june+30%2C+2014%2C+either+detailing+how+and+when+the+54-year-old+will+be+shut+down%2C+or+outlining+how+the+company+plans+to+keep+the+reactor+operating+beyond+the+end+of+the+licence+period+in+2016.&source=web&cd=7&ved=0CD4QFjAG&url=http%3A%2F%2Fnuclearsafety.gc.ca%2Ffr%2Fcommission%2Fpdf%2F2010-06-08-Transcript-Hearing-AECL.pdf&ei=l3a1Tpj5Dcfn0QGKo-jRBw&usg=AFQjCNHNEAuz4W7kR6GbqR0MhPjjSUgtaA&cad=rja)

Chalk River license is renewed for five more years

The first is the great news that CNSC has approved AECL's application to renew the operating license for the Chalk River Laboratories Site for a period of 5 years. This is great news for neutron scattering, isotope and nuclear research communities as it means NRU is allowed to operate for the next 5 years: http://www.nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/mediacentre/releases/news_release.cfm?news_release_id=393
 Also see the link below for a summary of the Record of Proceedings
and Decision: http://www.nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/commission/pdf/Summary-RecordProceedings-AECL-e-Edocs3825691.pdf
"While in principle the decision allows for an extension to the life of NRU, operation remains contingent on the results of licensed safety requirements, one such being a reactor vessel inspection report CNSC expects to receive from AECL by February 2012." from http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/IT-Chalk_River_licensed_for_five_more_years-281011a.html
"I am extremely pleased that the Commission has renewed the Chalk River operating licence for five years," said Dr. Robert Walker, AECL President and Chief Executive Officer. "This license is vital to enabling AECL to deliver value to Canadians and the world as Canada’s premier nuclear Science and Technology organization.” from: http://www.neimagazine.com/story.asp?sectionCode=132&storyCode=2061014
News of the license approval at Canada.com http://www.canada.com/news/nuclear+reactor+until+2016+with+safety+problems+licensing+hearing+told/5502571/story.html

Thursday, 6 October 2011

Nuclear-powered Mars Curiosity set to launch in November

Nuclear-powered Mars Curiosity set to launch in November!!! this awesome news! "Curiosity’s generator is built to withstand launch explosions or the extreme heat — up to 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit — that would be encountered during an inadvertent atmospheric re-entry after an upper-stage engine failure.
The plutonium dioxide fuel is protected by several layers of safety. Fuel pellets the size of marshmallows are sheathed in a dense, iridium heat shield. The pellets are bundled in pairs in high-strength graphite shells designed to absorb the most powerful possible impacts. And those shells are wrapped with ablative sleeves made of carbon-bonded fiber." read more:

Target station at ESS

A great article about the target station at ESS in the Oct issue of the Physics World: "Handling 100 °C temperature changes that occur in less than 3 ms is a key task for those designing the European Spallation Source, as Michael Banks reports... When complete in 2019, the €1.48bn European Spallation Source (ESS) will be the most powerful source of neutrons in the world. With construction expected to start in 2013, and the facility fully open by 2025, the ESS will produce neutrons by accelerating protons in a linac to 2.5 GeV before smashing them into a seven-tonne target. The neutrons will then be cooled by a moderator and sent to 22 experimental stations to be used by researchers to probe the structure and physical properties of a wide range of solids, liquids and gases. The ESS will specialize in long wavelength, or "cold", neutrons that suit experiments on large-scale structures such as polymers and biological molecules.". See http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/indepth/47369 to read about technical challenges of building the target station... The full issue dealing with also other types of large scale facilities could be downloaded here: http://images.iop.org/dl/physicsweb/2011/PW-big-science-web.pdf

Wednesday, 5 October 2011

Tuesday, 4 October 2011

Licence renewal of the Chalk River Labs

Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) hold today hearing for the licence renewal of the Chalk River Labs until 2016... The public hearing is webcasted live on the CNSC website (http://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/commission/webcasts/index.cfm) and will be archived for 3 months. All submissions including AECL’s and CNSC's recommendations and the submissions filed by the public are available upon request directly from the CNSC website: http://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/commission/hearings/documents_browse/date.cfm?dt=4-Oct-2011

Monday, 3 October 2011

Tandem Accelerator Superconducting Cyclotron

Did you know 25 years ago, on Oct. 3, 1986, the world's first Tandem Accelerator Superconducting Cyclotron (able to accelerate most elements to 10 MeV per nucleon) was officially opened at Chalk River Laboratories? using superconducting technology for the first time in building accelerators, they were able to create a more powerful yet smaller and cheaper accelerator http://media.cns-snc.ca/history/fifty_years/hanna.html ... also see http://epaper.kek.jp/p85/PDF/PAC1985_2643.PDF for a pdf file of the paper describing its commissioning (IEEE Transaction on Nuclear Science, October 1985, Volume NS-32, Number 5, p.2643)... more historical highlights could be found here: http://www.candu.org/candu_reactors.html

Sunday, 2 October 2011

National Innovation Strategy

This is a great read on why the US is now behind 5 nations in overall innovation and competitiveness and continues to fall further behind, a national innovation strategy is needed to reverse this course... perhaps there are lessons to be learned here in Canada as well... see www.uic.edu/index.html/Chancellor/risingabove.pdf for the report Rising Above the Gathering Storm. "Each of the five nations ranked by the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation as “out-competing” the U.S. has implemented a national competitiveness or innovation strategy: that is, a unified plan to marshal their governmental and private resources to support new technologies and ideas. Worldwide, at least 30 countries have established their own competitiveness plans. Yet the U.S.– alone among the world’s technological leaders–has failed to draw up a roadmap for innovation. Is it any wonder that, with no clear view of our destination, America has failed to make strides in the right direction?"... "Now is not the time to be slashing federal investment in research and development in science. Investments in our federal science agencies and our national innovation infrastructure are minimal down-payments on our country’s security, public health, and economic vitality that we cannot afford to postpone."... read more: http://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/201108/backpage.cfm
This is the latest Global Innovation Index 2011 rankings of the world’s most innovative countries, Canada ranks 8 behind Switzerland, Sweden, Singapore, Hong Kong (SAR), Finland, Denmark, and the US: http://www.globalinnovationindex.org/gii/main/analysis/rankings.cfm?vno=a&viewall=true

Saturday, 1 October 2011

Medical isotope shortage

There is still no plan to solve the medical (as well as industrial and research) isotope shortage problem in the long term: "At present, both the Dutch and Canadian reactors are operational again, and doctors have enough isotopes to carry out millions of routine nuclear medicine procedures per year, as they have in the past. But because both of these reactors, as well as all of the rest in the small fleet of research reactors that generate medical isotopes, are rapidly aging, a replacement for them is desperately needed.
The Canadian government has even given the world a hard deadline for this replacement. In 2016, it has pledged to shut down the 50-year-old Chalk River reactor forever." ... Let's not forget a replacement for the aging NRU not only will solve the medical isotope problem but also allows Canada to continue with its leadership role in neutron scattering and nuclear science and technology for years to come... Read more: http://www.txchnologist.com/2011/endangered-isotopes-where-will-nuclear-medicine-get-its-critical-tool

Friday, 30 September 2011

Bill Gates investing more on nuclear energy

Whether this idea will work or not, it is great that someone is willing to put the money required to do the research required for it! without such investments and research no progress could be made: "The outside of the travelling-wave reactor will be similar to today's reactors, but the inside is radically different. A conventional nuclear reactor depends on enriched uranium to generate its heat and electricity, but the travelling-wave reactor uses only a small amount of highly enriched uranium (U-235) to kickstart fission and a slow-moving chain-wave reaction. Two parallel waves of fission then move about a centimetre a year, splitting uranium atoms of the spent nuclear fuel (reprocessed uranium) or unenriched uranium (depleted uranium, U-238) packed into the core, in a process that first creates plutonium-239 and then consumes it. This reaction should be much more efficient than a conventional reactor and, in theory, can be sustained for decades." Read more: http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/green-living/has-bill-gates-come-up-with-a-safe-clean-way-to-harness-nuclear-power-2363205.html

What now that Germany dims nuclear power plants?

What now that Germany dims nuclear power plants? really bad news in terms of climate change "Even if Germany succeeds in producing the electricity it needs, “the nuclear moratorium is very bad news in terms of climate policy,” Mr. Varro said. “We are not far from losing that battle, and losing nuclear makes that unnecessarily difficult.”" read more: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/30/science/earth/30germany.html?_r=2&nl=todaysheadlines&emc=tha2, also to satisfy the required power they are buying power generated by nuclear in neighboruring countries!!! "Set in the lush, rolling Bohemian hills of the Czech Republic, the twin reactors of the Soviet-designed Temelín nuclear power plant lie just 44 miles from the German border. Since last spring, when Chancellor Angela Merkel began shutting down Germany’s nuclear reactors, Temelín has stepped up supplies of electricity to Bavaria, where big German manufacturers including BMW, Audi, and Siemens (SI) have factories.
There’s a double paradox here. Germany says its future will be nuclear-free. For the present, though, it’s nuclear not-so-free, relying more than ever on electricity from atomic-powered neighbors. What’s more, the Germans have been turning off their reactors because they don’t want a Fukushima-style meltdown spewing radiation across their country. Yet the Temelín reactors, which are in good shape, are close enough to the border to rain down radiation on Germany should a serious accident occur." read more: http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/nukefree-germany-isnt-exactly-nukefree-09292011.html

Thursday, 29 September 2011

Is aecl sale "The dumbest in history"?

Is aecl sale "The dumbest in history"? NDP MP Nathan Cullen thinks so, Read more: http://www.vancouversun.com/business/Sale+dumbest+Canada+history/5468896/story.html#ixzz1ZO08xqdg 'The government, as part of its decision to privatize the Candu division of AECL, is facing a $59 million restructuring charge and "$93 million in adjustments to revenue and costs resulting from AECL's subcontract agreement with Candu Energy Inc.," the newly created subsidiary company of SNC-Lavalin.
Federal spending on the sold nuclear reactor division includes cash to "further commercial operations' progress on life extension reactor projects" that will be factored into future royalties paid back to the government.
Under the terms of the sale of the commercial division, the government and AECL must provide up to $75 million in support toward the completion of the Enhanced Candu Reactor development program.
The sale - which was announced in June and is to close by Friday - likely will also see more than 800 people lose their jobs. SNC-Lavalin has committed to hiring about 1,200 of AECL's commercial operations staff, which totals about 2,025." AT least with the sale behind us finally, the focus could now be put back to research in nuclear science and technology and what Canada needs to be able to continue with that, i.e. a new research reactor...

Wednesday, 28 September 2011

What about Canada?

And now you ask what about Canada especially considering that its only major neutron source is the aging NRU, could be that Saskatchewan will be the scientific centre of Canada with its already operating light source, add a new research reactor, and the sky will be the limit! It is remarkable that Saskatchewan has realized the opportunity and initiated its commitment... This is the link to the video of the announcement for a New Centre for Research in Nuclear Medicine and Materials at the University of Saskatchewan back in March: "The University of Saskatchewan will receive $30 million in funding over the next seven years to establish a centre for the study of nuclear medicine and science.
"In the early 1950s, scientists at the University of Saskatchewan pioneered the use of cobalt 60 for cancer treatment," Premier Wall said. "Today we are taking another important step in re-capturing that international leadership position in nuclear medicine and expanding it to include research in materials science and small reactor design."
The province's $30 million investment in nuclear research builds on January's announcement of $12 million in funding from the federal and provincial governments to build a new linear accelerator and support research into the production medical isotopes at the Canadian Light Source." http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0saRviWgEWg&feature=relmfu

China Spallation Neutron Source

As far as new neutron sources are concerned, let's not forget the China Spallation Neutron Source currently under construction: http://csns.ihep.ac.cn/english/index.htm ... and that is in addition to the Chinese research reactor already started up and with neutron instruments being currently built: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NN-Chinese_research_reactor_starts_up-1805107.html

The European Spallation Source (ESS)

The European Spallation Source (ESS) will be a world-leading centre for materials research with neutrons and will host the world’s most powerful neutron source when commissioned in 2025: http://ess-scandinavia.eu/ ... and it will be in addition to 12 or so already existing neutron sources in Europe (http://neutron.neutron-eu.net/n_about/n_where/europe)... Also it was recently announced that the ESS and ILL (Institut Laue-Langevin) are initiating an extensive collaboration for research and development activities within neutron science, another major step towards maintaining a significant role for Europe in neutron science well beyond 2025 (http://www.cisionwire.com/european-spallation-source-ab/r/ess-and-ill-start-joint-r-d-in-neutron-science,c9166154).